Piotr (Peter) Bołtuć
University of Illinois at Springfield, USA; The Warsaw School of Economics, Poland.
PHILOSOPHY AS A THEORY OVER THEORIES
We view philosophy as paradigm setting: largely, spread over leading sciences of the epoch, as well as the main developing technologies, and even socio-economic and managerial patterns. This is, obviously, a “regulatory definition,” not quite a descriptive one. We examine whether it is the science of sciences, or the science over the sciences. Thus, it is not quite a meta-science. Our point is not to view philosophy as a methodology of science, or as its maid ( ancilla). Philosophy is viewed as the pinnacle of the sciences, providing them with ontological and axiological meanings. Here is one proposed definition: Philosophy is built upon the sum of general theories of all leading sciences (broadly understood); it is a theory based on this sum. The aim of philosophy so defined is to stipulate and approximate veridical worldviews, rooted in the strongest available background, which is largely the background provided by the sciences, but not quite limited to what is scientifically provable at a given point in time—this last clause is due to temporary limitedness of any science, always existing at a given time-slice. Thus, limited dependency on any principles, not only factual statements. As we know from Albert Einstein’s relativity theories and other scientific revolutions, both factual statements and higher-level principles, are always already inductively questionable, e.g., through inference to the best explanation following pragmatic, context dependent, criteria of what counts as “the best” of explanations. We also question the intuitive requirements of physicalism that are crucial to Daniel Stoljar’s thesis that physicalism cannot be properly defined. In contrast to the broadly scientistic predilection beneath the approach in the main bulk of this article we also need and require a philosophical focus on the human existential condition, which is complementary to, and not contradictory with, the above definition of philosophy. The proposed approach may be viewed as an Enlightenment approach, aware of its strengths and limits; thus, with a post- Enlightenment zing.
Keywords: Philosophy as paradigm building, physicalism over the current sciences.
B. Jack Copeland , Diane Proudfoot
Universityof Canterbury, New Zealand
doi: 10.37240/FiN. 2023.11.1.3
We examine Turing’s intriguing claim, made in the philosophy journal Mind, that he had created a short computer program of such a nature that it would be impossible “to discover by observation sufficient about it to predict its future behaviour, and this within a reasonable time, say a thousand years” (Turing, 1950, p. 457). A program like this would naturally have cryptographic applications, and we explore how the program would most likely have functioned. Importantly, a myth has recently grown up around this program of Turing’s, namely that it can be used as the basis of an argument—and was so used by Turing—to support the conclusion that it is impossible to infer a detailed mathematical description of the human brain within a practicable timescale. This alleged argument of Turing’s has been dubbed “Turing’s Wager” (Thwaites, Soltan, Wieser, Nimmo-Smith, 2017, p. 3) We demonstrate that this argument—in fact nowhere to be found in Turing’s work—is worthless, since it commits a glaring logical fallacy. “Turing’s Wager” gives no grounds for pessimism about the prospects for understanding and simulating the human brain.
Keywords: Alan Turing, Turing’s Wager, mechanized encryption, laws of behaviour, unspecifiability of the mind, brain modelling, whole-brain simulation, cipher machines, Enigma, Fish, Tunny, early computer-based cryptography.
AGI Laboratory, Seattle, WA,USA
THE HUMAN GOVERNANCE PROBLEM: COMPLEX SYSTEMS AND THE LIMITS OF HUMAN COGNITION
The impact of complexity within government and societal systems is considered relative to the limitations of human cognitive bandwidth, and the resulting reliance on cognitive biases and systems of automation when that bandwidth is exceeded. Examples of how humans and societies have attempted to cope with the growing difference between the rate at which the complexity of systems and human cognitive capacities increase respectively are considered. The potential of and urgent need for systems capable of handling the existing and future complexity of systems, utilizing greater cognitive bandwidth through scalable AGI, are also considered, along with the practical limitations and considerations in how those systems may be deployed in real-world conditions. Several paradoxes resulting from the influence of prolific Narrow Tool AI systems manipulating large portions of the population are also noted.
Keywords: e-Governance, complexity, cognitive bandwidth AGI, Artificial General Intelligence, scalability tool AIcognitive bias.
University of Illinois Springfield
UNVEILING AI’S EXISTENTIAL THREATS AND SOCIETAL RESPONSIBILITIES
Artificial Intelligence (AI) stands at the intersection of unprecedented opportunities and profound challenges. As AI is increasingly integrated into societal structures, the necessity for transparency and open-source approaches becomes paramount to foster both innovation and ethical considerations. Collaborative efforts among academia, industry, and policymakers are essential for addressing the multifaceted complexities that AI presents. While AI promises transformative benefits, potential challenges, such as its weaponization, corporate exploitation, and job displacement, warrant careful attention. Striking a balance between regulation with innovation is critical. Academic institutions can play a pivotal role, guiding AI’s trajectory, nurturing interdisciplinary learning, and equipping future professionals. Embracing open-source AI can ensure its ethical use and mitigate the risks associated with its exploitation. The existential threats posed by AI are significant, yet with strategic collaboration and foresight, a bright, AI-driven future is within reach.
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence (AI), open-source AI, AI ethics, AI transparency, AI Education.
California State University, Dominguez Hills
WPROWADZENIE DO INFORMATYKI STRATEGICZNEJ ANDRZEJA TARGOWSKIEGO
Strategic Informatics is a monograph of the field of computer science in the field of; Its strategic development waves, the challenges of technological progress in the context of the strategic role of computer science, the main strategy-oriented applications in business, healthcare, agriculture, education and private home, strategic challenges of computer science in the humanities, digital state and city, sustainable development and information ethics, morality, and rights.
Keywords: strategic informatics, KSI, KSO, PESEL, digitization, civilization waves, IT revolution, AI, robots, Internet, Infostrada, Cyfronet, unemployment, Big Tech, Lange, Chile, informatics matrix model, humanities matrix model, automation, laws of computer science, IT ethics, IT morality, applications of informatics, informatic systems, cloud computing, IT platforms, technological challenges, definition of informatics, computer science.
PHILOSOPHY OF CHANCE ACCORDING TO MARIAN SMOLUCHOWSKI
The article discusses the evolution of Marian Smoluchowski’s reasoning in his research on causality and understanding the essence of chance. Initially, Smoluchowski focused on the epistemic study of causality, looking for evidence supporting the kinetic-molecular theory. In proving the causes of Brownian motion, he used the concepts of physical causality. The fundamental change in Polish physicist’s perception of causality was the understanding of the position of chance on the cause-effect line. Introducing mathematical relations into his considerations, he analyzed the aspect of the occurrence of the effect. The chance suitable for calculating probability was distinguished from the chance in a broader sense by the essential regularity of the frequent recurrence of the phenomenon, regardless of the knowledge of the cause. Smoluchowski’s merit was the distinction between the philosophical and physical understanding of causality, chance and probability theory. Shifting the considerations on the nature of chance to the ontological plane moved the study of chance into the area of science, thus leading to the practical application of probability theory in physics.
Keywords: physical causality, Brownian motion, effect, chance, probability.
Instytut Filozofii, Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Polska.
„CZARNOSKRZYNKOWY” MODEL EKSPERYMENTU EPR-B
According to Bell’s theorem, no local realistic model can reproduce all predictions of quantum mechanics for the EPR-B experiment. Any such model would have to predict both the perfect correlation and breaking the CHSH inequality, but this seems impossible, since to provide the first prediction, the model would have to be deterministic, whereas this would seem to make the second one impossible. A model of the EPR-B experiment is presented, in which this apparent contradiction is expected to be avoided due to a deterministic chaotic mechanism underlying measurements. The model is in the phase of a “black box” model, since this mechanism is not yet specified, but only a corresponding probabilistic response function.
Keywords: Quantum mechanics, Bell’s theorem, EPR-B experiment.
Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski, al. Racławickie 14, 20-950 Lublin.
FIRST INSPIRATIONS TO THE REVISION OF CLASSICAL LOGIC ON THE GROUND OF QUANTUUM MECHANICS: ZYGMUNT ZAWIRSKI AND JOHN VON NEUMANN
Quantum logic emerged in the 1930s as a response to the question of whether the conceptual changes initiated in physics by quantum mechanics required a revision of logic. In the English-language literature, John von Neumann is considered the founder of quantum logic, while the Polish literature points to Zygmunt Zawirski. Zawirski was the first researcher who suggested that quantum mechanics may follow a different logic than classical logic. He was the first researcher in the field of many-valued quantum logic, but his influence ultimately proved to be limited. John von Neumann, on the other hand, along with Garrett Birkhoff, started the now dominant field of algebraic quantum logic. It turns out that despite their differences in assumptions and methods, what they have in common is their commitment to subjecting the design of quantum logic to two requirements – consideration of Heisenberg’s indeterminacy principle and reconciliation of the resulting logic with probability calculus.
Keywords: Zygmunt Zawirski, John von Neumann, quantum logic, many- valued logic, philosophy of quantum mechanics.
Catania University, Dipartimento di Scienze della Formazione, Italy.
THE PHYSICAL PLATONISM OF GALILEO GALILEI: ERNST CASSIRER’S INTERPRETATION IN HIS PUBLISHED AND UNPUBLISHED WRITINGS
The struggle undertaken by Galileo Galilei against Aristotelian physics—and his subsequent defense of Nicolaus Copernicus’s theories—led the Pisan scientist to bring about the so-called modern scientific revolution and to lay the foundations of the experimental method, the fundamental result of which was to deprive the natural world of subjective qualities and to reconfigure it in purely quantitative terms. On the purely historical level, agreement among historians of science and philosophy is almost unanimous, while the same cannot be said for questions concerning interpretations of Galilei’s modus operandi and the basic philosophical options adopted by Galilei during his demolition of the entire Aristotelian-scholastic framework. Not all experts in the Galilean thought or of science, in fact, agree in tracing the Galilean reflection within the Platonic tradition, but one authoritative voice that has instead argued for its deep intertwining between Plato and Galilei is the German philosopher Ernst Cassirer. In this contribution I will attempt to demonstrate, partly considering two unpublished manuscripts of Cassirer, the plausibility of the Cassirerian thesis about Galilei’s physical Platonism.
Keywords: abstraction, Cassirer, Galileo Galilei, idealization, science.